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East Anglia was the centre of what became the Puritan movement and at Cambridge, it was particularly strong at Emmanuel, St Catharine's Hall, Sidney Sussex and Christ's College. Hodge brought Cambridge into the international mainstream in the 1930s.They produced many "non-conformist" graduates who greatly influenced, by social position or pulpit, the approximately 20,000 Puritans who left for New England and especially the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Great Migration decade of the 1630s. Although diversified in its research and teaching interests, Cambridge today maintains its strength in mathematics.
Many nobles, intellectuals and even commoners saw the ways of the Church of England as being too similar to the Catholic Church and that it was used by the crown to usurp the rightful powers of the counties.
In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members (ius non-trahi extra) and an exemption from some taxes. There were also institutions without endowments, called hostels.
(Oxford would not receive a similar enhancement until 1248.) The colleges at the University of Cambridge were originally an incidental feature of the system. The hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some indicators of their time, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane.
The university also operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, and a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library.
For many years only male students were enrolled into the university.
The first colleges for women were Girton College (founded by Emily Davies) in 1869 and Newnham College in 1872 (founded by Anne Clough and Henry Sidgwick), followed by Hughes Hall in 1885 (founded by Elizabeth Phillips Hughes as the Cambridge Teaching College for Women), Murray Edwards College (founded by Rosemary Murray as New Hall) in 1954, and Lucy Cavendish College in 1965.King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".In response, colleges changed their curricula away from canon law, and towards the classics, the Bible, and mathematics.In the year ended 31 July 2015, the university had a total income of £1.64 billion, of which £398 million was from research grants and contracts.The university is closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as "Silicon Fen".is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England.